fredag 22 maj 2020

Black Hat Python Free PDF

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Iranian APT Group Targets Governments In Kuwait And Saudi Arabia

Today, cybersecurity researchers shed light on an Iranian cyber espionage campaign directed against critical infrastructures in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. Bitdefender said the intelligence-gathering operations were conducted by Chafer APT (also known as APT39 or Remix Kitten), a threat actor known for its attacks on telecommunication and travel industries in the Middle East to collect personal

via The Hacker News
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Blockchain Exploitation Labs - Part 2 Hacking Blockchain Authorization


Bypassing Blockchain Authorization via Unsecured Functions


Note: Since the first part of this series I have also uploaded some further videos on remediation of reentrancy and dealing with compiler versions when working with this hacking blockchain series.  Head to the console cowboys YouTube account to check those out.  Haha as mentioned before I always forget to post blogs when I get excited making videos and just move on to my next project… So make sure to subscribe to the YouTube if you are waiting for any continuation of a video series.. It may show up there way before here. 

Note 2:  You WILL run into issues when dealing with Ethereum hacking, and you will have to google them as versions and functionality changes often... Be cognizant of versions used hopefully you will not run into to many hard to fix issues. 

In the second part of this lab series we are going to take a look at privacy issues on the blockchain which can result in a vulnerably a traditional system may  not face. Since typically blockchain projects are open source and also sometimes viewable within blockchain explorers but traditional application business logic is not usually available to us. With traditional applications we might not find these issues due to lack of knowledge of internal functionality or inability to read private values on a remote server side script.  After we review some issues we are going to exploit an authorization issues by writing web3.js code to directly bypass vertical authorization restrictions.

Blockchain projects are usually open source projects which allow you to browse their code and see what's going on under the hood.  This is fantastic for a lot of reasons but a developer can run into trouble with this if bad business logic decisions are deployed to the immutable blockchain.  In the first part of this series I mentioned that all uploaded code on the blockchain is immutable. Meaning that if you find a vulnerability it cannot be patched. So let's think about things that can go wrong..

A few things that can go wrong:
  • Randomization functions that use values we can predict if we know the algorithm
  • Hard-coded values such as passwords and private variables you can't change.
  • Publicly called functions which offer hidden functionality
  • Race conditions based on how requirements are calculated

Since this will be rather technical, require some setup and a lot of moving parts we will follow this blog via the video series below posting videos for relevant sections with a brief description of each.  I posted these a little bit ago but have not gotten a chance to post the blog associated with it.  Also note this series is turning into a full lab based blockchain exploitation course so keep a lookout for that.

In this first video you will see how data about your project is readily available on the blockchain in multiple formats for example:
  • ABI data that allows you to interact with methods.
  • Actual application code.
  • Byte code and assembly code.
  • Contract addresses and other data.

 Lab Video Part 1: Blockchain OSINT: 



Once you have the data you need to interact with a contract on the blockchain via some OSINT how do you actually interface with it? That's the question we are going to answer in this second video. We will take the ABI contract array and use it to interact with methods on the blockchain via Web3.js and then show how this correlates to its usage in an HTML file

Lab Video Part 2: Connecting to a Smart Contract: 




Time to Exploit an Application:

Exploit lab time, I created an vulnerable application you can use to follow along in the next video. Lab files can be downloaded from the same location as the last blog located below. Grab the AuthorizationLab.zip file:

Lab file downloads:



Ok so you can see what's running on the blockchain, you can connect to it, now what?   Now we need to find a vulnerability and show how to exploit it. Since we are talking about privacy in this blog and using it to bypass issues. Lets take a look at a simple authorization bypass we can exploit by viewing an authorization coding error and taking advantage of it to bypass restrictions set in the Smart Contract.  You will also learn how to setup a local blockchain for testing purposes and you can download a hackable application to follow along with the exercises in the video..

Lab Video Part 3:  Finding and hacking a Smart Contract Authorization Issue: 





Summary:

In this part of the series you learned a lot, you learned how to transfer your OSINT skills to the blockchain. Leverage the information found to connect to that Smart Contract. You also learned how to interact with methods and search for issues that you can exploit. Finally you used your browsers developer console as a means to attack the blockchain application for privilege escalation.

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torsdag 21 maj 2020

Change Passwords Regularly - A Myth And A Lie, Don'T Be Fooled, Part 1


TL;DR: different passwords have different protection requirements, and different attackers using various attacks can only be prevented through different prevention methods. Password security is not simple. For real advise, checking the second post (in progress).

Are you sick of password advices like "change your password regularly" or "if your password is password change it to pa$$w0rd"? This post is for you!

The news sites are full of password advises nowadays due to recent breaches. When I read/watch these advise (especially on CNN), I am usually pissed off for a lot of reasons. Some advises are terrible (a good collection is here), some are good but without solutions, and others are better, but they don't explain the reasons. Following is my analysis of the problem. It works for me. It might not work for you. Comments are welcome!

Password history

Passwords have been used since ancient times.


Because it is simple. When I started using the Internet, I believe I had three passwords. Windows login, webmail, and IRC. Now I have ~250 accounts/passwords to different things, like to my smartphone, to my cable company (this password can be used to change the channels on the TV), to my online secure cloud storage, to full disk encryption to start my computer, to my nude pictures, to my WiFi router, to my cloud server hosting provider, etc etc etc. My money is protected with passwords, my communication is protected with passwords/encryption, my work is protected with passwords. It is pretty damn important. But yet people tend to choose lame passwords. Pretty lame ones. Because they don't think it can be significant. But what is not essential today will be relevant tomorrow. The service you used to download music (iTunes) with the lame password will one day protect all your Apple devices, where attackers can download your backup files, erase all your devices, etc. The seven-character and one capital rule is not enough anymore. This advice is like PDF is safe to open, Java is secure. Old, outdated, untrue.

Now, after this lengthy prologue, we will deep dive into the analysis of the problem, by checking what we want to protect, against whom (who is the attacker), and only after that, we can analyze the solutions. Travel with me, I promise it will be fun! ;)

What to protect?

There are different services online, and various services need different ways to protect. You don't use the same lock on your Trabant as you do on your BMW.

Internet banking, online money

For me, this is the most vital service to protect. Luckily, most of the internet banking services use two-factor authentication (2FA), but unfortunately, not all of them offer transaction authorization/verification with complete transactions. 2FA is not effective against malware, it just complicates the attack. Transaction authorization/verification is better, but not perfect (see Zitmo). If the access is not protected with 2FA, better choose the best password you have (long, real random, sophisticated, but we will get to this later). If it is protected with 2FA, it is still no reason not to use the best password ;) This is what I call the "very high-level password" class.


Credit card data

This system is pretty fucked up bad. Something has to be secret (your credit card number), but in the meantime that is the only thing to identify your credit card. It is like your username is your password. Pretty bad idea, huh? The problem is even worse with a lot of different transaction types, especially when the hotel asks you to fax both sides of your CC to them. Unfortunately, you can't change the password on your credit card, as there is no such thing, but Verified by VISA or 3-D Secure with 2FA might increase the chances your credit card won't get hacked. And on a side note, I have removed the CVV numbers from my credit/debit cards. I only read it once from the card when I received it, I don't need it anymore to be printed there.
And sometimes, you are your own worst enemy. Don't do stupid things like this:


Work related passwords (e.g. Windows domain)

This is very important, but because the attack methods are a bit different, I created this as a different category. Details later.

Email, social sites (Gmail/Facebook/Twitter), cloud storage, online shopping

This is what I call the "high level password" class.
Still, pretty important passwords. Some people don't understand "why would attackers put any energy to get his Facebook account?" It is simple. For money. They can use your account to spread spam all over your Facebook wall. They can write messages to all of your connections and tell them you are in trouble and send money via Western Union or Bitcoin.


They can use your account in Facebook votes. Your e-mail, cloud storage is again very important. 20 years ago you also had letters you didn't want to print and put in front of the nearest store, neither want you to do that with your private photo album. On a side note, it is best to use a cloud storage where even the cloud provider admin can't access your data. But in this case, with no password recovery option, better think about "alternative" password recovery mechanisms.

Other important stuff with personal data (e.g. your name, home address)

The "medium level password" class. This is a personal preference to have this class or not, but in the long run, I believe it is not a waste of energy to protect these accounts. These sites include your favorite pizza delivery service, your local PC store, etc.

Not important stuff

This is the category other. I usually use one-time disposable e-mail to these services. Used for the registration, get what I want, drop the email account. Because I don't want to spread my e-mail address all over the internet, whenever one of these sites get hacked. But still, I prefer to use different, random passwords on these sites, although this is the "low level password" class.

Attackers and attack methods

After categorizing the different passwords to be protected, let's look at the different attackers and attack methods. They can/will/or actively doing it now:

Attacking the clear text password 

This is the most effective way of getting the password. Bad news is that if there is no other factor of protection, the victim is definitely not on the winning side. The different attack methods are:

  • phishing sites/applications,


  • social engineering,
  • malware running on the computer (or in the browser), 
  • shoulder surfing (check out for smartphones, hidden cameras), 
  • sniffing clear-text passwords when the website is not protected with SSL,
  • SSL MiTM,
  • rogue website administrator/hacker logging clear text passwords,
  • password reuse - if the attacker can get your password in any way, and you reuse it somewhere else, that is a problem,
  • you told your password to someone and he/she will misuse it later,
  • hardware keyloggers,
  • etc.

The key thing here is that no matter how long your passwords are, no matter how complex it is, no matter how often do you change it (except when you do this every minute ... ), if it is stolen, you are screwed. 2FA might save you, or might not.

Attacking the encrypted password 

This is the usual "hack the webserver (via SQL injection), dump the passwords (with SQLMap), post hashes on pastebin, everybody starts the GPU farm to crack the hashes" scenario. This is basically the only scenario where the password policies makes sense. In this case the different level of passwords need different protection levels. In some cases, this attack turns out to be the same as the previous attack, when the passwords are not hashed, or are just encoded.

The current hash cracking speeds for hashes without any iterations (this is unfortunately very common) renders passwords like Q@tCB3nx (8 character, upper-lowercase, digit, special characters) useless, as those can be cracked in hours. Don't believe me? Let's do the math.

Let's say your password is truly random, and randomly choosen from the 26 upper, 26 lower, 10 digit, 33 special characters. (Once I tried special passwords with high ANSI characters inside. It is a terrible idea. Believe me.). There are 6 634 204 312 890 620 different, 8 character passwords from these characters. Assuming a 2 years-old password cracking rig, and MD5 hash cracking with 180 G/s speed, it takes a worst case 10 hours (average 5) to crack the password, including upgrading your bash to the latest, but still vulnerable bash version. Had the password been 10 characters long, it would take 10 years to crack with today hardware. But if the password is not truly random, it can be cracked a lot sooner.

A lot of common hashing algorithms don't use protections against offline brute-force attacks. This includes LM (old Windows hashes), NTLM (modern Windows hashes), MD-5, SHA1-2-512. These hashing algorithms were not developed for password hashing. They don't have salting, iterations, etc. out of the box. In the case of LM, the problem is even worse, as it converts the lowercase characters to uppercase ones, thus radically decreasing the key space. Out of the box, these hashes are made for fast calculation, thus support fast brute-force.


Another attack is when the protected thing is not an online service, but rather an encrypted file or crypto-currency wallet.

Attacking the authentication system online

This is what happened in the recent iCloud hack (besides phishing). Attackers were attacking the authentication system, by either brute-forcing the password, or bypassing the password security by answering the security question. Good passwords can not be brute-forced, as it takes ages. Good security answers have nothing to do with the question in first place. A good security answer is as hard to guess as the password itself. If password recovery requires manual phone calls, I know, it is a bit awkward to say that your first dog name was Xjg.2m`4cJw:V2= , but on the other hand, no one will guess that!


Attacking single sign on

This type of attack is a bit different, as I was not able to put the "pass the hash" attacks anywhere. Pass the hash attack is usually found in Windows domain environments, but others might be affected as well. The key thing is single sign on. If you can login to one system (e.g. your workstation), and access many different network resources (file share, printer, web proxy, e-mail, etc.) without providing any password, then something (a secret) has to be in the memory which can be used to to authenticate to the services. If an attacker can access this secret, he will be able to access all these services. The key thing is (again) it does not matter, how complex your passwords are, how long it is, how often do you change, as someone can easily misuse that secret.

 

Attacking 2FA

As already stated, 2 factor authentication raises the efforts from an attacker point of view, but does not provide 100% protection. 
  • one time tokens (SecurID, Yubikey) can be relayed in a man-in-the-middle attack
  • smartcard authentication can be relayed with the help of a malware to the attacker machine - or simply circumvented in the browser malware, 
  • text based (SMS) messages can be stolen by malware on the smartphone or rerouted via SS7, 
  • bio-metric protection is constantly bypassed,
  • SSH keys are constantly stolen,
  • but U2F keys are pretty good actually, even though BGP/DNS hijack or similar MiTM can still circumvent that protection,
  • etc. 


Others

Beware that there are tons of other attack methods to access your online account (like XSS/CSRF), but all of these have to be handled on the webserver side. The best you can do is to choose a website where the Bug Bounty program is running 24/7. Otherwise, the website may be full of low hanging, easy-to-hack bugs.

Now that we have covered what we want to protect against what, in the next blog post, you will see how to do that. Stay tuned. I will also explain the title of this blog post.More information
  1. Herramientas De Seguridad Informatica
  2. Phishing Hacking
  3. Mundo Hacker
  4. Hacker Pelicula
  5. Hacking Etico Que Es
  6. Hacking Academy
  7. Python Hacking
  8. Hacking Basico
  9. Hacking Wifi Android
  10. Que Estudia Un Hacker
  11. Cómo Se Escribe Hacker
  12. El Mejor Hacker
  13. Libros Hacking
  14. Curso De Hacking
  15. Hacking Etico Curso Gratis
  16. Tecnicas De Hacking

How To Install Windscribe - The Best Free VPN On GNU/Linux Distros?


Why should you use Windscrive?
   Windscribe is well-known for their free VPN service but they also have a paid version. Only with a free account, you will get 10 countries to connect through and change your real IP address and 10GB of free traffic (if you use an email to sign up Windscribe), and unlimited devices.

   The Free version is awesome, but the Pro one is even better! With Pro version you will get Unlimited DataUnblock over 60 Countries and 110 CitiesConfig Generator (OpenVPN, IKEv2, SOCKS5), and full protection from R.O.B.E.R.T.

   For your information, Windscribe is one of the best VPN services in the category Free AuditValue Audit and Overall Audit in BestVPN.com Awards 2019 (Read the White Paper here). You totally can believe in Windscribe (100% no logs).

   And about R.O.B.E.R.T, it's an advanced DNS level blocker that protects you from MalwareAds and TrackersSocial trackingPornGamblingFake NewsClickbait and Cryptominers. Read more about R.O.B.E.R.T.




Anyway, Windscribe helps you:
  • Stop tracking and browse privately: Governments block content based on your location. Corporations track and sell your personal data. Get Windscribe and take back control of your privacy.
  • Unblock geo-restricted content: Windscribe masks your IP address. This gives you unrestricted and private access to entertainment, news sites, and blocked content in over 45 different countries.
  • Take your browsing history to your grave: Protect your browsing history from your network administrator, ISP, or your mom. Windscribe doesn't keep any logs, so your private data stays with you.
  • Stop leaking personal information: Prevent hackers from stealing your data while you use public WIFI and block annoying advertisers from stalking you online.
  • Go beyond basic VPN protection: For comprehensive privacy protection, use our desktop and browser combo (they're both free).

   Windscribe also supports Chrome browser, Firefox browser, Opera browser, Smart TV, Routers, Android, iOS, BlackBerry, Windows OS, Mac OS X and GNU/Linux OS, you name it.

   You can install Windscribe on Ubuntu, Debian, Fedora, CentOS, Arch Linux and their based distros too.

   But to install and safely use Internet through Windscribe, you must sign up an account first. If you already have an account then let's get started.

How to install Windscribe on Arch and Arch-based distros?
   First, open your Terminal.

   For Arch Linux and Arch-based distro users, you can install Windscribe from AUR. Run these commands without root to download and install Windscribe on your Arch:


   For other distro users, go to VPN for Linux - Windscribe choose the binary file that compatible with your distro (.DEB for Debian and Ubuntu based, .RPM for Fedora and CentOS based) and then install it.
dpkg -i [Windscribe .DEB package]
rpm -ivh [Windscribe .RPM package]



   Or you can scroll down to Pick Your Distro, click to the distro version you use, or click to the distro version that your distro is based on and follow the instructions.

   Now enter these commands to auto-start a and log in to Windscribe.

   Enter your username and password and then you can enjoy Windscribe's free VPN service.

How to use Windscribe on Linux?
   This is Windscribe list of commands (windscribe --help):
   If you want Windscribe to chooses the best location for you, use windscribe connect best.

   But if you want to choose location yourself, here is the list of Windscribe's locations:
   *Pro only
   Example, i want to connect to "Los Angeles - Dogg", i use windscribe connect Dogg.

   If you want to stop connecting through Windscribe use windscribe disconnect.

   For some reasons, you want to log out Windscribe from your device, use windscribe logout.

I hope this article is helpful for you 😃


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onsdag 20 maj 2020

Reversing C++ String And QString

After the rust string overview of its internal substructures, let's see if c++ QString storage is more light, but first we'r going to take a look to the c++ standard string object:



At first sight we can see the allocation and deallocation created by the clang++ compiler, and the DAT_00400d34 is the string.

If we use same algorithm than the rust code but in c++:



We have a different decompilation layout. Note that the Ghidra scans very fast the c++ binaries, and with rust binaries gets crazy for a while.
Locating main is also very simple in a c++ compiled binary, indeed is more  low-level than rust.


The byte array is initialized with a simply move instruction:
        00400c4b 48 b8 68        MOV        RAX,0x6f77206f6c6c6568

And basic_string generates the string, in the case of rust this was carazy endless set of calls, detected by ghidra as a runtime, but nevertheless the basic_string is an external imported function not included on the binary.

(gdb) x/x 0x7fffffffe1d0
0x7fffffffe1d0: 0xffffe1e0            low str ptr
0x7fffffffe1d4: 0x00007fff           hight str ptr
0x7fffffffe1d8: 0x0000000b        sz
0x7fffffffe1dc: 0x00000000
0x7fffffffe1e0: 0x6c6c6568         "hello world"
0x7fffffffe1e4: 0x6f77206f
0x7fffffffe1e8: 0x00646c72
0x7fffffffe1ec: 0x00000000        null terminated
(gdb) x/s 0x7fffffffe1e0
0x7fffffffe1e0: "hello world"

The string is on the stack, and it's very curious to see what happens if there are two followed strings like these:

  auto s = string(cstr);
  string s2 = "test";

Clang puts toguether both stack strings:
[ptr1][sz1][string1][null][string2][null][ptr2][sz2]

C++ QString datatype

Let's see the great and featured QString object defined on qstring.cpp and qstring.h

Some QString methods use the QCharRef class whose definition is below:

class Q_EXPORT QCharRef {
friend class QString;
QString& s;
uint p;
Searching for the properties on the QString class I've realized that one improvement that  rust and golang does is the separation from properties and methods, so in the large QString class the methods are  hidden among the hundreds of methods, but basically the storage is a QStringData *;

After removing the methods of QStringData class definition we have this:

struct Q_EXPORT QStringData : public QShared {
    QChar *unicode;
    char *ascii;
#ifdef Q_OS_MAC9
    uint len;
#else
    uint len : 30;

Hacking Everything With RF And Software Defined Radio - Part 3


Reversing Device Signals with RFCrack for Red Teaming


This blog was researched and automated by:
@Ficti0n 
@GarrGhar 
Mostly because someone didn't want to pay for a new clicker that was lost LOL

Websites:
Console Cowboys: http://consolecowboys.com 
CC Labs: http://cclabs.io

CC Labs Github for RFCrack Code:
https://github.com/cclabsInc/RFCrack


Contrived Scenario: 

Bob was tasked to break into XYZ  corporation, so he pulled up the facility on google maps to see what the layout was. He was looking for any possible entry paths into the company headquarters. Online maps showed that the whole facility was surrounded by a security access gate. Not much else could be determined remotely so bob decided to take a drive to the facility and get a closer look. 

Bob parked down the street in view of the entry gate. Upon arrival he noted the gate was un-manned and cars were rolling up to the gate typing in an access code or simply driving up to the gate as it opening automatically.  Interestingly there was some kind of wireless technology in use. 

How do we go from watching a car go through a gate, to having a physical device that opens the gate?  

We will take a look at reversing a signal from an actual gate to program a remote with the proper RF signal.  Learning how to perform these steps manually to get a better understanding of how RF remotes work in conjunction with automating processes with RFCrack. 

Items used in this blog: 

Garage Remote Clicker: https://goo.gl/7fDQ2N
YardStick One: https://goo.gl/wd88sr
RTL SDR: https://goo.gl/B5uUAR


 







Walkthrough Video: 




Remotely sniffing signals for later analysis: 

In the the previous blogs, we sniffed signals and replayed them to perform actions. In this blog we are going to take a look at a signal and reverse it to create a physical device that will act as a replacement for the original device. Depending on the scenario this may be a better approach if you plan to enter the facility off hours when there is no signal to capture or you don't want to look suspicious. 

Recon:

Lets first use the scanning functionality in RFCrack to find known frequencies. We need to understand the frequencies that gates usually use. This way we can set our scanner to a limited number of frequencies to rotate through. The smaller rage of frequencies used will provide a better chance of capturing a signal when a car opens the target gate. This would be beneficial if the scanning device is left unattended within a dropbox created with something like a Kali on a Raspberry Pi. One could access it from a good distance away by setting up a wifi hotspot or cellular connection.

Based on research remotes tend to use 315Mhz, 390Mhz, 433Mhz and a few other frequencies. So in our case we will start up RFCrack on those likely used frequencies and just let it run. We can also look up the FCID of our clicker to see what Frequencies manufactures are using. Although not standardized, similar technologies tend to use similar configurations. Below is from the data sheet located at https://fccid.io/HBW7922/Test-Report/test-report-1755584 which indicates that if this gate is compatible with a universal remote it should be using the 300,310, 315, 372, 390 Frequencies. Most notably the 310, 315 and 390 as the others are only on a couple configurations. 




RFCrack Scanning: 

Since the most used ranges are 310, 315, 390 within our universal clicker, lets set RFCrack scanner to rotate through those and scan for signals.  If a number of cars go through the gate and there are no captures we can adjust the scanner later over our wifi connection from a distance. 

Destroy:RFCrack ficti0n$ python RFCrack.py -k -f 310000000 315000000 390000000
Currently Scanning: 310000000 To cancel hit enter and wait a few seconds

Currently Scanning: 315000000 To cancel hit enter and wait a few seconds

Currently Scanning: 390000000 To cancel hit enter and wait a few seconds

e0000000000104007ffe0000003000001f0fffe0fffc01ff803ff007fe0fffc1fff83fff07ffe0007c00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000e0007f037fe007fc00ff801ff07ffe0fffe1fffc3fff0001f00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000003809f641fff801ff003fe00ffc1fff83fff07ffe0fffc000f80000000000000000000000000000000000000000000003c0bff01bdf003fe007fc00ff83fff07ffe0fffc1fff8001f0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000380000000000000000002007ac115001fff07ffe0fffc000f8000000000000000000000000000000000000000
Currently Scanning: 433000000 To cancel hit enter and wait a few seconds


Example of logging output: 

From the above output you will see that a frequency was found on 390. However, if you had left this running for a few hours you could easily see all of the output in the log file located in your RFCrack/scanning_logs directory.  For example the following captures were found in the log file in an easily parseable format: 

Destroy:RFCrack ficti0n$ cd scanning_logs/
Destroy:scanning_logs ficti0n$ ls
Dec25_14:58:45.log Dec25_21:17:14.log Jan03_20:12:56.log
Destroy:scanning_logs ficti0n$ cat Dec25_21\:17\:14.log
A signal was found on :390000000
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
A signal was found on :390000000
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



Analyzing the signal to determine toggle switches: 

Ok sweet, now we have a valid signal which will open the gate. Of course we could just replay this and open the gate, but we are going to create a physical device we can pass along to whoever needs entry regardless if they understand RF. No need to fumble around with a computer and look suspicious.  Also replaying a signal with RFCrack is just to easy, nothing new to learn taking the easy route. 

The first thing we are going to do is graph the capture and take a look at the wave pattern it creates. This can give us a lot of clues that might prove beneficial in figuring out the toggle switch pattern found in remotes. There are a few ways we can do this. If you don't have a yardstick at home you can capture the initial signal with your cheap RTL-SDR dongle as we did in the first RF blog. We could then open it in audacity. This signal is shown below. 



Let RFCrack Plot the Signal For you: 

The other option is let RFCrack help you out by taking a signal from the log output above and let RFCrack plot it for you.  This saves time and allows you to use only one piece of hardware for all of the work.  This can easily be done with the following command: 

Destroy:RFCrack ficti0n$ python RFCrack.py -n -g -u 1f0fffe0fffc01ff803ff007fe0fffc1fff83fff07ffe0007c
-n = No yardstick attached
-g = graph a single signal
-u = Use this piece of data




From the graph output we see 2 distinct crest lengths and some junk at either end we can throw away. These 2 unique crests correspond to our toggle switch positions of up/down giving us the following 2 possible scenarios using a 9 toggle switch remote based on the 9 crests above: 

Possible toggle switch scenarios:

  1. down down up up up down down down down
  2. up up down down down up up up up 

Configuring a remote: 

Proper toggle switch configuration allows us to program a universal remote that sends a signal to the gate. However even with the proper toggle switch configuration the remote has many different signals it sends based on the manufacturer or type of signal.  In order to figure out which configuration the gate is using without physically watching the gate open, we will rely on local signal analysis/comparison.  

Programming a remote is done by clicking the device with the proper toggle switch configuration until the gate opens and the correct manufacturer is configured. Since we don't have access to the gate after capturing the initial signal we will instead compare each signal from he remote to the original captured signal. 


Comparing Signals: 

This can be done a few ways, one way is to use an RTLSDR and capture all of the presses followed by visually comparing the output in audacity. Instead I prefer to use one tool and automate this process with RFCrack so that on each click of the device we can compare a signal with the original capture. Since there are multiple signals sent with each click it will analyze all of them and provide a percent likelihood of match of all the signals in that click followed by a comparing the highest % match graph for visual confirmation. If you are seeing a 80-90% match you should have the correct signal match.  

Note:  Not every click will show output as some clicks will be on different frequencies, these don't matter since our recon confirmed the gate is communicating on 390Mhz. 

In order to analyze the signals in real time you will need to open up your clicker and set the proper toggle switch settings followed by setting up a sniffer and live analysis with RFCrack: 

Open up 2 terminals and use the following commands: 

#Setup a sniffer on 390mhz
  Setup sniffer:      python RFCrack.py -k -c -f 390000000.     
#Monitor the log file, and provide the gates original signal
  Setup Analysis:     python RFCrack.py -c -u 1f0fffe0fffc01ff803ff007fe0fffc1fff83fff07ffe0007c -n.  

Cmd switches used
-k = known frequency
-c = compare mode
-f = frequency
-n = no yardstick needed for analysis

Make sure your remote is configured for one of the possible toggle configurations determined above. In the below example I am using the first configuration, any extra toggles left in the down position: (down down up up up down down down down)




Analyze Your Clicks: 

Now with the two terminals open and running click the reset switch to the bottom left and hold till it flashes. Then keep clicking the left button and viewing the output in the sniffing analysis terminal which will provide the comparisons as graphs are loaded to validate the output.  If you click the device and no output is seen, all that means is that the device is communicating on a frequency which we are not listening on.  We don't care about those signals since they don't pertain to our target. 

At around the 11th click you will see high likelihood of a match and a graph which is near identical. A few click outputs are shown below with the graph from the last output with a 97% match.  It will always graph the highest percentage within a click.  Sometimes there will be blank graphs when the data is wacky and doesn't work so well. This is fine since we don't care about wacky data. 

You will notice the previous clicks did not show even close to a match, so its pretty easy to determine which is the right manufacture and setup for your target gate. Now just click the right hand button on the remote and it should be configured with the gates setup even though you are in another location setting up for your test. 

For Visual of the last signal comparison go to ./imageOutput/LiveComparison.png
----------Start Signals In Press--------------
Percent Chance of Match for press is: 0.05
Percent Chance of Match for press is: 0.14
Percent Chance of Match for press is: 0.14
Percent Chance of Match for press is: 0.12
----------End Signals In Press------------
For Visual of the last signal comparison go to ./imageOutput/LiveComparison.png
----------Start Signals In Press--------------
Percent Chance of Match for press is: 0.14
Percent Chance of Match for press is: 0.20
Percent Chance of Match for press is: 0.19
Percent Chance of Match for press is: 0.25
----------End Signals In Press------------
For Visual of the last signal comparison go to ./imageOutput/LiveComparison.png
----------Start Signals In Press--------------
Percent Chance of Match for press is: 0.93
Percent Chance of Match for press is: 0.93
Percent Chance of Match for press is: 0.97
Percent Chance of Match for press is: 0.90
Percent Chance of Match for press is: 0.88
Percent Chance of Match for press is: 0.44
----------End Signals In Press------------
For Visual of the last signal comparison go to ./imageOutput/LiveComparison.png


Graph Comparison Output for 97% Match: 







Conclusion: 


You have now walked through successfully reversing a toggle switch remote for a security gate. You took a raw signal and created a working device using only a Yardstick and RFCrack.  This was just a quick tutorial on leveraging the skillsets you gained in previous blogs in order to learn how to analyze  RF signals within embedded devices. There are many scenarios these same techniques could assist in.  We also covered a few new features in RF crack regarding logging, graphing and comparing signals.  These are just a few of the features which have been added since the initial release. For more info and other features check the wiki. 

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tisdag 19 maj 2020

How To Start PHP And MYSQL | The Best Server For PHP And MYSQL | Tutorial 1


Many of people want to start PHP programming embedded with MYSQL databases concepts. So i thought that I should start a series about PHP and MYSQL. So in this series of video tutorials you exactly got the content about PHP and MYSQL.

As PHP is server side scripting language. So it requires a server to get execute over the web browser. First of all you have to download and install a server that may be XAMPP, WAMPP or LAMPP. I'm using XAMPP server in the tutorials. So if you wanna follow me then download a XAMPP server. I'm using this because it has a good interface to work  and it's really simple. XAMPP is compatible with windows, MAC and Linux operating as well. WAMPP is only for windows and LAMPP is used for MAC and Linux operating system. So i prefer XAMPP for this series.

How to create Database

Step 1:

Open Your XAMPP control panel and start Apache and Mysql services.

Step 2:

Go to your Web browser and type "localhost/phpmyadmin". It will open your databases area. If you have an error then your services are not in running state. If you have any error then comment below.

Step 3:

Click over the "new" to create a new database.

Step 4:

Write Database_Name and click over the Create button. For example Facebook, Students etc.

Step 5:

Write Table_Name like admin, users etc. your can increase and decrease the size of rows. Click over Save/Create button.

Step 6:

Write your Attribute_Names in first column like Username, Email, Passwords etc. In the next data type column you have to select the data type whether it is integer or string type etc. In the next column you have to set the length of string/words.

Step 7:

If you wanna go through with a Primary_Key. Then just you have to checked the Auto_Increment box as you will shown in the video. For further watch the video for better understanding.